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Ochuva, Gooseberries or Golden Berry,

Physalis peruviana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia




Physalis peruviana

Ripe orange fruits
Scientific classificationedit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Physalis
Species:
P. peruviana
Binomial name
Physalis peruviana
Synonyms[1]
  • Alkekengi pubescens Moench
  • Boberella peruviana (L.) E.H.L. Krause
  • Physalis esculenta Salisb.
  • Physalis latifolia Lam.
  • Physalis tomentosa Medik.

Physalis peruviana, is a South American plant native to Peru and Colombia in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), commonly known as Cape gooseberry or goldenberry, known in their countries of origin as uchuva, and in Hawaii called poha, in addition to numerous indigenous and regional names.[2][3][4] The history of P. peruviana cultivation in South America can be traced to the Inca.[5][6] It has been cultivated in England since the late 18th century, and in South Africa in the Cape of Good Hope since at least the start of the 19th century.[2] Widely introduced in the 20th century, P. peruviana is cultivated or grows wild across the world in temperate and tropical regions.[3]

Description[edit]

P. peruviana is closely related to the tomatillo and the Chinese lantern.[2] As a member of the plant family Solanaceae, it is related to a large number of edible plants, including tomatoes, eggplants, and potatoes.[2]

P. peruviana is an annual in temperate locations, but perennial in the tropics.[2] As a perennial, it develops into a diffusely branched shrub reaching 1–1.6 m (3.3–5.2 ft) in height, with spreading branches and velvety, heart-shaped leaves.[3] The hermaphrodite flowers are bell-shaped and drooping, 15–20 mm (0.6–0.8 in) across, yellow with purple-brown spots internally. After the flower falls, the calyx expands, ultimately forming a beige husk fully enclosing the fruit.[2][3]

The fruit is a round, smooth berry, resembling a miniature yellow tomato 1.25–2 cm (0.5–0.8 in) wide.[3] Removed from its calyx, it is bright yellow to orange in color, and sweet when ripe, with a characteristic, mildly tart grape- or tomato-like flavor.[2]

A prominent feature is the inflated, papery calyx enclosing each berry. The calyx is accrescent until the fruit is fully grown; at first, it is of normal size, but after the petals fall, it continues to grow until it forms a protective cover around the growing fruit. If the fruit is left inside the intact calyx husks, its shelf life at room temperature is about 30–45 days. The calyx is inedible.

Groundcherries (cape-gooseberries or poha), raw
Physalis spp.
Physalis peruviana fruits close-up.jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 222 kJ (53 kcal)
11.2 g
0.7 g
1.9 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
5%
36 μg
Thiamine (B1)
10%
0.11 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
19%
2.8 mg
Vitamin C
13%
11 mg
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
1%
9 mg
Iron
8%
1 mg
Phosphorus
6%
40 mg

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Physalis peruviana is native to the mountain slope regions of Peru and Chile.[2] It grows in forests, forest edges, and riparian areas.[3] It grows at high elevations of 500–3,000 m (1,600–9,800 ft) in its native region, but may also be found at sea level in Oceania and Pacific islands where it occurs widely in subtropical and warm, temperate conditions.[3] Its latitude range is about 45 to 60, and its altitude range is generally from sea level to 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[3] The plant has become invasive in some natural habitats, forming thickets, particularly in Hawaii and on other Pacific islands.[3]

Pests and diseases[edit]

In South Africa, cutworms attack the Cape gooseberry in seedbeds, red spiders in the field, and potato tuber moths near potato fields. Hares damage young plants, and birds eat the fruits. Mites, whiteflies, and flea beetles can be problematic.[2] Powdery mildew, soft brown scale, root rot, and viruses may affect plants.[2] In New Zealand, plants can be infected by Candidatus liberibacter subsp. solanacearum.[14]

Culinary uses[edit]

P. peruviana is an economically useful crop as an exotic exported fruit, and is favored in breeding and cultivation programs of many countries.[3] P. peruviana fruits are marketed in the United States as goldenberry and sometimes Pichuberry, named after Machu Picchu in order to associate the fruit with its origin in Peru.[15]

Cape gooseberry is made into fruit-based sauces, pies, puddings, chutneys, jams, and ice cream, or eaten fresh in salads and fruit salads.[2] In Latin America, it is often consumed as a batido or smoothie,[16] and because of its showy husk, it is popular in restaurants as a decorative garnish for desserts. To enhance its food uses, hot air drying improved qualities of dietary fiber content, texture, and appearance.[17]

In basic research on fruit maturation, the content of polyphenols and vitamin C varied by cultivar, harvest time, and ripening stage.[18]

Nutrition[edit]

According to nutrient analyses by the USDA, a 100 g serving of Cape gooseberries is low in energy (53 kcal) and contains moderate levels of vitamin C, thiamin, and niacin, while other nutrients are negligible (see table).[19] Analyses of oil from different berry components, primarily its seeds, showed that linoleic acid and oleic acid were the main fatty acids, beta-sitosterol and campesterol were principal phytosterols, and the oil contained vitamin K and beta-carotene.[20]

Basic research on Cape gooseberry includes studies on polyphenols and/or carotenoids.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Physalis peruviana L." The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 14 December2014.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Morton JF (1987). "Cape gooseberry,Physalis peruviana L. in Fruits of Warm Climates". Purdue University, Center for New Crops & Plant Products.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)". Invasive Species Compendium, CABI. 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  4. ^ Ad Hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council (1989). Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. pp. 249–50. doi:10.17226/1398. ISBN 978-0-309-07461-2.
  5. ^ (Cailes 1952; Legge 1974a)
  6. ^ Zealand, The Royal Society of New (1986). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. The Royal Society of New Zealand. p. 425.
  7. ^ "Physalis peruviana L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 2: 1670 (1763)". ipni.org. International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  8. ^ von Mueller, Ferdinand. Select Extra-Tropical Plants Readily Eligible For Industrial Culture Or Naturalization, With Indications Of Their Native Countries And Some Of Their Uses. Detroit, Michigan: G.S. Davis, 1884. Page 229. May be obtained from Amazon or downloaded from:https://archive.org/details/selectextratropi00muel
  9. ^ Loudon, Jane Wells. Botany for Ladies, Or, a Popular Introduction to the Natural System of Plants. Pub: J. Murray (1842)
  10. ^ "Discover the aguaymanto, one of the best foods produced in Peru". peru.info. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
  11. ^ "Uchuvas". flavorsofbogota.com. Retrieved 2020-08-09.
  12. ^ "Semer et planter le physalis ou amour en cage". Plants-et-Jardins. 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2014.French: amour en cageEnglish: Love in a cage
  13. ^ "Fr. Visminlu Vicente L. Chua, S.J., Philippine Fruits. Published online: 1 September 2015". Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  14. ^ Liefting, L. W.; L. I. Ward; J. B. Shiller; G. R. G. Clover (2008). "A New 'Candidatus Liberibacter' Species in Solanum betaceum (Tamarillo) and Physalis peruviana (Cape Gooseberry) in New Zealand". Plant Disease. 92 (11): 1588. doi:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1588B. PMID 30764458.
  15. ^ Galarza, Daniella (2013-06-18). "This Goose(berry) is Cooked: Let's Talk About the Pichuberry". Los Angeles Magazine. Retrieved 19 April 2014.
  16. ^ "Five amazing natural juices with Colombian fruit and vegetables". colombia.co. Retrieved 2020-08-09.
  17. ^ Vega-Gálvez, A; Zura-Bravo, L; Lemus-Mondaca, R; Martinez-Monzó, J; Quispe-Fuentes, I; Puente, L; Di Scala, K (2013). "Influence of drying temperature on dietary fibre, rehydration properties, texture and microstructure of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52 (4): 2304–2311. doi:10.1007/s13197-013-1235-0. PMC 4375184. PMID 25829613.
  18. ^ Bravo, K; Sepulveda-Ortega, S; Lara-Guzman, O; Navas-Arboleda, A. A.; Osorio, E (2015). "Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 95 (7): 1562–9. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6866. PMID 25131258.
  19. ^ "Groundcherries, (cape-gooseberries or poha), raw, 100 g, USDA Nutrient Database, version SR-21". Nutritiondata.com. Conde Nast. 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  20. ^ Ramadan MF, Mörsel JT (2003). "Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.)". J Agric Food Chem. 51 (4): 969–74. doi:10.1021/jf020778z. PMID 12568557.
  21. ^ Wu, SJ; Tsai JY; Chang SP; Lin DL; Wang SS; Huang SN; Ng LT (2006). "Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana". J Ethnopharmacol. 108 (3): 407–13. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.027. PMID 16820275
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